One of the keys to writing a descriptive essay is to create a picture in your reading audience’s mind by engaging all five of their senses – smell, sight, touch, taste and sound. If you can do this, then your essay is a success, if not, then you have a lot of work to do. The first steps in writing a descriptive essay will lay the groundwork for the entire piece.
Step 1: Choose a topic
A descriptive essay will usually focus on a single event, a person, a location or an item. When you write your essay, it is your job to convey your idea about that topic through your description of that topic and the way that you lay things out for your reader. You need to show your reader (not tell them) what you are trying to describe by illustrating a picture in their mind’s eye very carefully.
Your essay needs to be structured in a manner that helps your topic to make sense. If you are describing an event, you will need to write your paragraphs in chronological order. If you are writing about a person or a place you need to order the paragraphs so that you start off in a general manner and then write more specific details later. Your introductory paragraph sets the tone for the rest of the essay, so it needs to set out all of the main ideas that you are going to cover in your essay.
Step 2: Create a statement
The next step is to create a thesis statement. This is a single idea that will be prominent throughout your essay. It not only sets out the purpose of the essay, but regulates the way that the information is conveyed in the writing of that essay. This is an introductory paragraph that sets out your topic framework.
Step 3: Get the senses right
Next, create five labelled columns on a sheet of paper, each one having a different of the five senses. This labelled list will help you to sort out your thoughts as you describe your topic – the taste, sight, touch, smell and sound of your topic can be sketched out among the columns. List out in the columns any sensation or feeling that you associate with the topic that you are writing about. You need to provide full sensory details that help to support the thesis. You can utilize literary tools such as metaphors, similes, personification and descriptive adjectives.
Once you have the columns laid out you can start to fill them with details that help to support your thesis. These should be the most interesting items that you have noted in your columns and will the details that you flesh out into the paragraphs of the body of your essay. Topics are set out in each separate paragraph and a topic sentence begins that paragraph and need to relate to your introductory paragraph and your thesis.
Step 4: Create an outline
The next step is to create an outline listing the details of the discussion of each paragraph. Students in high school are generally asked to write a five paragraph essay while college students are given more freedom with the length of their piece. The standard five paragraph essay has a particular structure including the introductory paragraph with the inclusion of a thesis statement, followed by three body paragraphs which prove that statement.
Step 5: Write the conclusion
Finally, the conclusion paragraph makes a summary of the entirety of your essay. This conclusion also needs to reaffirm your thesis (if necessary). Your conclusion needs to be well written because it is the final thing to be read by your reader and will remain on their mind the longest after they have read the remainder of your essay.
Step 6: Review your essay
It is important to take a break from your writing once you have completed the work. By stepping away from the work for a short time you can clear your mind and take a short rest. You can then take a look at the essay with fresh eyes and view it in much the same way that a person reading it will when they first see the piece.
After you have taken a short break or a walk (or whatever the case may be), read the entire essay again thinking about your reader. You should ask yourself if you were the reader, would the essay make sense to you? Is it easy to read so that anyone can understand what the topic of the essay is? Do any of the paragraphs need to be rewritten because they are confusing and need to be better written to be descriptive?
Your choice of words and language need to convey what you are trying to describe when you talk about a particular topic. The details that you have provided should give your reader enough information that they can form a complete picture. Any details in the essay should help a reader to understand the meaning of the topic from the writer’s point of view.
Read your entire essay over again, out loud this time. Sometimes reading something out loud can help to identify any issues that should be worked out. Read the essay again to a friend or family member and have them give you any criticisms that they might have. Have someone else ready your essay and then ask them if anything needs to be clarified or if they received a clear picture from the details given in the essay.
Step 7: Finish it up
Finally, read your essay again very carefully and check for any grammar, punctuation or spelling errors that are obvious within the essay. If you find any clichés, be sure to delete them, they certainly do not belong in your essay. If there are any parts that are not completely descriptive or don’t make as much sense as you would like them to, rewrite them once again and then follow the proof reading and reading aloud process again to ensure that the final product is exactly as expected. You can never be too thorough when it comes to reading the essay over again and checking for any areas that need to be reworked.
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Paperboard is a thick paper-based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.30 mm, 0.012 in, or 12 points) than paper. According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a grammage above 250 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single- or multi-ply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging. Another end-use would be graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard, which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp–based board. Paperboard is also used in fine arts for creating sculptures.
In 1817, the first paperboard carton was produced in England. Folding cartons first emerged around the 1860s and were shipped flat to save space, ready to be set up by customers when they were required. 1879 saw the development of mechanical die cutting and creasing of blanks. In 1911 the first kraft sulphate mill was built in Florida. In 1915 the gable top milk carton was patented and in 1935 the first dairy plant was observed using them. Ovenable paperboard was introduced in 1974.
Terminology and classification
Terminology and classifications of paperboard are not always uniform. Differences occur depending on specific industry, locale, and personal choice. In general, the following are often used:
- Boxboard or cartonboard: paperboard for folding cartons and rigid set-up boxes
- Containerboard: a type of paperboard manufactured for the production of corrugated fiberboard
- Corrugated medium: the inner fluted portion of corrugated fiberboard
- Linerboard: a strong stiff board for one or both sides of corrugated boxes. It is the flat covering over the corrugating medium.
- Binder's board: a paperboard used in bookbinding for making hardcovers.
See also: Paper machine
Fibrous material is turned into pulp (paper)/pulp and bleaching of wood bleached, to create one or more layers of board, which can be optionally coated for a better surface and/or improved visual appearance. pulp board are produced on pulping machines that can handle higher grammage and several plies.
The above-mentioned fibrous material can either come from fresh (virgin) sources (e.g. wood) or from recycled waste paper. Around 90% of virgin paper is made from wood pulp. Today paperboard packaging in general, and especially products from certifiedsustainable sources, are receiving new attention, as manufacturers dealing with environmental, health, and regulatory issues look to renewable resources to meet increasing demand. It is now mandatory in many countries for paper-based packaging to be manufactured wholly or partially from recycled material.
Raw materials include:
- Hardwood: C. 0.05 inches (1.3 mm) in length e.g. Birch which has short fibres. It is generally more difficult to work with; however, it does provide higher tensile strength, but lower tear and other strength properties. Although its fibres are not as long and strong as those in softwood, they make for a stiffer product defined by some stifness tests. Hardwood fibres fill the sheet better and therefore make a smoother paper that is more opaque and better for printing. Hardwood makes an excellent corrugating medium.
- Softwood: C. 0.13 inches (3.3 mm) in length e.g. Pine and spruce which have typically long fibres and make superior paperboard in services where strength is important. Softwood makes excellent linerboard.
- Recycled: Used paper is collected and sorted and usually mixed with virgin fibres in order to make new material. This is necessary as the recycled fibre often loses strength when reused; the added virgin fibres enhance strength. Mixed waste paper is not usually deinked (skipping the deinking stage) for paperboard manufacture and hence the pulp may contain traces of inks, adhesives, and other residues which together give it a grey colour. Products made of recycled board usually have a less predictable composition and poorer functional properties than virgin fibre-based boards. Health risks have been associated with using recycled material in direct food contact. Swiss studies have shown that recycled material can contain significant portions of mineral oil, which may migrate into packed foods. Mineral oil levels of up to 19.4 mg/kg were found in rice packed in recycled board.
Main article: Pulp (paper)
Two principal methods for extracting fibres from their sources are:
- Chemical pulping uses chemical solutions to convert wood into pulp, yielding around 30% less than mechanical pulping; however, pulp made by the kraft process has superior strength
- Thermo mechanical pulp is a two-stage process which results in a very high yield of wood fibres at the expense of strength.
Main article: Bleaching of wood pulp
Pulp used in the manufacture of paperboard can be bleached to decrease colour and increase purity. Virgin fibre pulp is naturally brown in colour, because of the presence of lignin. Recycled paperboard may contain traces of inks, bonding agents and other residue which colors it grey. Although bleaching is not necessary for all end-uses, it is vital for many graphical and packaging purposes. There are various methods of bleaching, which are used according to a number of factors for example, the degree of colour change required, chemicals chosen and method of treatment. There are three categories of bleaching methods:
Multi-ply paperboard generally has higher creasing and folding performance than single-ply as a result of layering different types of pulp into a single product. In cases where the same kind of pulp is being used in several layers, each separate layer is treated and shaped individually in order to create the highest possible quality.
In order to improve whiteness, smoothness and gloss of paperboard, one or more layers of coating is applied. Coated paper is usually made up of:
Additional components could be OBA (optical brightening agents).
The DIN Standard 19303 "Paperboard - Terms and grades" (Publication date : 2005-09) defines different grades of paperboard based on the surface treatment (first letter), the main furnish (second letter) and the colour (non-D grade) or bulk (D grade only) (numbering).
All except D grades:
D grades only:
Example: GC1 would be a "pigment coated", "virgin mechanical pulp" board with a "white reverse side". Often the used paperboard type would be FBB, which was coated on both sides.
Basis Weight (US): Is the weight in 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of paperboard.
Brightness: Brightness is a technical term that is defined as the amount of blue-white light that a paper reflects. This property is very subjective and individual to each buyer and end use, as skin colour and food are better reproduced on ‘warm’ (yellow) whites and not blue whites.
Grammage: The grammage of the paperboard is assessed in accordance ISO 536. Grammage expresses mass per unit area and is measured in g/m2.
PH: Surface pH is measured on a water extract and is on a scale of 0–14. 0 is acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is alkaline.
Stiffness: Stiffness is one of the most important properties of paperboard as it affects the ability of cartons to run smoothly through the machine that erects, fills and closes them. Stiffness also gives strength and reduces the propensity of a carton to bulge under the weight of settling flowable contents such as cereals.
Although most paper strength properties increase with increasing sheet density, stiffness does not. A rule of thumb is that stiffness is proportional to the 1.6 power of sheet caliper.
The species of fiber used has an effect on stiffness, other things being equal. Northern softwood species impart superior stiffness compared to southern softwoods.
Other factors which affect board stiffness include coatings and moisture content.
Smoothness: Smoothness is particularly important when being used for printing, the smoother the paperboard, the better the image quality, because of better ink coverage. Smoothness is measured using air leak methods – the greater the rate of air leakage, at a specific air pressure, from under a cylindrical knife placed on the surface, the rougher the surface.
Caliper/Thickness: In the United States caliper is usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (0.001”) or points, where a sheet of paperboard with a thickness of 0.024” would be 24 points. In Europe it is often sold in g/m2, however the thickness of the board is measured in micron (μm).
Paperboard also tends to be referred to with thickness rather than weight.
Whiteness: It refers ideally to the equal presence of all colours, because a truly white sheet will reflect all wavelengths of visible light equally.
The paperboard sector is mainly looked at in conjunction with the paper industry. The Paper & Paperboard market size (2007) had a value of 630.9 billion USD and a volume of 320.3 million metric tons. Of that market 40.1% is European. About 50% of all produced paper is used for packaging, followed by printing and writing. According to ProCarton, the consumption of paper and paperboard seem to correlate with economic trends (GDP). Sales of carton in Europe sum up to around 8 billion Euros worth. Over 1,100 printers produce 5.4 million tonnes of cartonboard yearly. Cartons make up one third of paper and board packaging and 15% of all packaging. A bit more than half (54%) of the European carton is produced using recovered fibre or waste paper. The paper and paperboard industry is quite energy and capital intensive. Just a coated board machine itself can cost around 90 - 120 million Euros (about 125 - 166 million USD in 11/2011). Economies of scale apply, because of which a few large players often dominate the market place. E.g. in North America the top 5 producers have a market share of 85%.
- ^Robertson, Gordon L. (2005). Food Packaging - Principle and Practice (2nd Ed.). p. 111. ISBN 978-0-8493-3775-8.
- ^Paperboard Packaging Alliance. "Paperboard Packaging"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on November 21, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^ASTM D996
- ^Soroka, W. Illustrated Glossary of Packaging Terminology (Second ed.). Institute of Packaging Professionals.
- ^ abcDatamonitor (June 2008). "Global Paper and Paperboard - Industry Profile".
- ^ abcIggesund Paperboard AB (2008). "Paperboard the Iggesund Way": 10.
- ^Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Germany). "Migration of mineral oil from packaging materials to foodstuffs (BfR Opinion No. 008/2010 of 2009-12-09)"(PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- ^Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung. "Übergänge von Mineralöl aus Verpackungsmaterialien auf Lebensmittel"(PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- ^ abKirwan, Mark J. (1998). Paper and paperboard packaging technology. London: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-6845-8.
- ^ abcdeTwede, Diana; Selke, Susan E. M. (2004). "Cartons, Crates and Corrugated Board: Handbook of Paper and Wood Packaging Technology". Lancaster, PA: DasTech Publications.
- ^ISO: International Organisation for Standardisation (1995). "Paper and board -- Determination of grammage". Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^Iggesund Paperboard (2008). "Product Catalogue: General Technical Information". Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^Dr. Peter Ince (1999–2000). "Paper, Paperboard and Woodpulp – Production, Consumption and Trade ECE/FAO Forest Products Annual Market Review"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on June 5, 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^ProCarton (2009). "The Carton Packaging Fact File: Cartons, Industry and the Environment"(PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- ^Metso Corporation’s press release (2011). "Metso to supply coated board line to International Paper & Sun Cartonboard in China". Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- Brody, A. L., and Marsh, K, S., Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, ISBN 0-471-06397-5
- Soroka, W., Fundamentals of Packaging Technology, IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4