Ios 9 Vs Android M Comparison Essay

1. Ubhi H, Michie S, Kotz D, Wong W, West R. Preliminary evaluation of SF28—a mobile application to aid smoking cessation. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2015;17(1):e17. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3479.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

2. Bricker, J. B., Mull, K. E., Kientz, J. A., Vilardaga, R., Mercer, L. D., Akioka, K. J., et al. (2014). Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 87–94. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.006. [PMC free article][PubMed]

3. International data corporation. Smartphone OS market share, Q1 2015. 2014. URL: (accessed 10–08-2014).

4. Droid vs. iOS. Battle of the ops. 2011. URL: (accessed 02–06-2015).

5. iOS users spend more of their time using apps compared to Android users. 2013. URL: (accessed 12–08-2014).

6. Michie, S., van Stralen, M. M., & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science, 6, 42. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-42. [PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Michie, S., Atkins, L., West, R. The behaviour change wheel: a guide to designing interventions. 2014. ISBN-13: 978-1291846058 .

8. Eysenck, H. J. A. (1941). Critical and experimental study of colour preferences. American Journal of Psychology, 54(3), 385–394.

9. Berlyne, D. E. (1971). Aesthetics and Psychobiology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

10. Berlyne DE, editor. Studies in the new experimental aesthetics: steps toward an objective psychology of aesthetic appreciation. Washington, DC: Hemisphere; 1974.

11. Crozier, R. (1994). Manufactured pleasures: psychological responses to design. Manchester University Press.

12. Reid, J. L., Hammond, D., Boudreau, C., Fong, G. T., et al; ITC Collaboration (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq051. [PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Li L, Feng G, Jiang Y, Yong HH, Borland R, Fong GT. Prospective predictors of quitting behaviours among adult smokers in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China survey. Addiction. 2011;106(7):1335–1345. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03444.x.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

14. Li L, Borland R, Yong H-H, Fong GT, Bansal-Travers M, Quah AC, et al. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2010;12(suppl 1):S34–S44. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntq030.[PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

15. West R, McEwen A, Bolling K, Owen L. Smoking cessation and smoking patterns in the general population: a 1-year follow-up. Addiction. 2001;96(6):891–902. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2001.96689110.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

16. Borland, R., Yong, H.-H., Balmford, J., Fong, G. T., Zanna, M. P., & Hastings, G. (2009). Do risk-minimizing beliefs about smoking inhibit quitting? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) four-country survey. Preventive Medicine, 49(2), 219–223. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.06.015. [PMC free article][PubMed]

17. Hellman, R., Cummings, K., Haughey, B., Zielezny, M., & O'Shea, R. (1991). Predictors of attempting and succeeding at smoking cessation. Health Education Research, 6(1), 77–86. [PubMed]

18. West R, May S, West M, Croghan E, McEwen A. Performance of English stop smoking services in first 10 years: analysis of service monitoring data. BMJ. 2013;347:f4921. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4921.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

19. Zhou, X., Nonnemaker, J., Sherrill, B., Gilsenan, A. W., Coste, F., & West, R. (2009). Attempts to quit smoking and relapse: factors associated with success or failure from the ATTEMPT cohort study. Addictive Behaviors, 34(4), 365–373. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.013. [PubMed]

20. Hagimoto A, Nakamura M, Morita T, Masui S, Oshima A. Smoking cessation patterns and predictors of quitting smoking among the Japanese general population: a 1-year follow-up study. Addiction. 2010;105(1):164–173. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02735.x.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

21. SF28. URL: (accessed 03-06-2015).  

22. West, R., Brown, J. Theory of Addiction. Wiley; 2013. ISBN: 978-0-470-67421-5.

23. West R, Evans A, Michie S. Behavior change techniques used in group-based behavioral support by the English stop-smoking services and preliminary assessment of association with short-term quit outcomes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2011;13(12):1316–1320. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntr120.[PubMed][Cross Ref]

24. West, R. (2009). The multiple facets of cigarette addiction and what they mean for encouraging and helping smokers to stop. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 6(4), 277–283.  [PubMed]

25. West R, Fidler J. Smoking and smoking cessation in England. 2010. England: London Vasco-Graphics URL: (accessed 2015–03-11).

26. Developer Economics. 2013. The “onboarding” problem. URL: (accessed 19–08-2015).

27. Kotz, D., & West, R. (2009). Explaining the social gradient in smoking cessation: it’s not in the trying, but in the succeeding. Tobacco Control, 18, 43–46. doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.025981.  [PubMed]

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This is a comparison of mobile operating systems. Only the latest versions are shown in the table below, even though older versions may still be marketed.

About OS[edit]

YesBetaLimitedTablet-only3rd partyNo
FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS
CompanyGoogle, Open Handset AllianceApple Inc.MicrosoftBlackBerry Ltd.Linux Foundation, Tizen Association, Samsung, IntelSailfish Alliance, Mer, Jolla and Sailfish community contributors
Market share[1]86.1%13.7%0.3%N/AN/AN/A
Current version8.111.2.610.0.15254.15810.3.3.22053.
Current version release datesAugust 21, 2017; 6 months ago (2017-08-21)February 19, 2018; 18 days ago (2018-02-19)[2]January 3, 2018; 2 months ago (2018-01-03);[3][4][5]December 12, 2016; 14 months ago (2016-12-12)May 20, 2017; 9 months ago (2017-05-20)October 9, 2017; 4 months ago (2017-10-09)[6]
LicenseFree and open-source, but usually bundled with proprietary apps and drivers[7][8]Proprietary except for open source componentsProprietary, Commercial softwareProprietaryFree and open-source, but the SDK is proprietary and closed sourceFree and open-source, but the UI is proprietary and closed source
OS familyLinuxDarwinMicrosoft WindowsQNXLinuxLinux
Supported CPU architectureARM, x86, MIPS and the 64-bit variants of all threeARM64ARMARMARM, x86, x86-64ARM, x86-64
Programmed inC, C++, Java, Kotlin, .NET C# (Xamarin)C, C++, Objective-C, Swift, .NET C# (Xamarin)7+: XNA (.NET C#), Silverlight, native C/C++ (only for vendors and partners[9])
8+: .NET C#, VB.NET, Silverlight, native C/C++, WinRTP (XMLA), DirectX
C/ C++: Native SDK, C++/Qt: Cascades SDK, HTML5/Javascript/CSS: Webworks SDK, ActionScript: Adobe AIR, Java: Android runtimeC++C++, QML, Python
Public issues listYes[10]3rd party[11]No[12]Yes[13]Yes[14]Yes[15]
DRM-free[16]No[17] since Android 4.1[18] and Android 4.3[19] and more restrictions on Android 4.4[20]No - FairPlayNoNo[21]YesYes
Device independent system updatesPartial system updates since Oreo[22] 3rd party software like LineageOS[23]Yes[24]Only for developersNoNoYes
Wireless system updatesYes5+[25]8+[26]Yes[27]NoYes
GPU accelerated GUI3+[28]YesYes[29]Yes, OS 7.0+?Yes
FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS

Advanced controls[edit]

Accessibility features[edit]

App ecosystem[edit]

FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS
Official app storeGoogle PlayApp StoreMicrosoft StoreBlackBerry World, Amazon Appstore[98]Tizen StoreJolla Store
Non-discriminatory storesNo, Some apps like Ad blockers are censored on Google Play[99][100] but developers can distribute apps from their own sourcesNo, Apple discriminates based on country[101] and own Apple policies[102]No, Discriminates by country,[103] manufacturer[104] and type of application[105]3rd party software?Openrepos.[106] Developers can distribute apps from their own sources, supports multiple app stores
Common APIs for smartphones, tablets, and PCsYes[107]Smartphone and tablet only[108]8.1+[109]NoNoYes
Official SDK platform(s)Linux, Mac OS X and Windows[110]Mac OS X using iOS SDKWindows[111]Windows, Mac OS X,[112] Linux (only Native SDK for 10+)[113]GNU/Linux, Windows, OS X[114]Windows, Mac OS X and Linux[115]
Cost to develop for the mobile OSFreeFree with Xcode 7[116]Free[117]FreeFreeFree
Cost to publish app to official storeUS$25 once to offer it on Google Play[118]US$99/yearUS$19, once, for an individual; and $99 for a company account.[119] Students can get a token for an individual account (1 token for 365 days) which gives free access to Windows Store/Phone Dev Center for 12 months.[120]FreeFreeFree[121]

Basic features[edit]

FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS
cut, copy, and pasteYes[122]3+[123]Yes[124]YesYes[125]Yes
Multi-Device clipboardNo10+[126]No, 3rd party software[127]NoNoNo
undoNo[128]3+[129]Optional for developers, UWP API have this feature[130][131]NoNoNo[132]
Custom home and lock screen wallpaperYes4+[70]YesYesYesYes (incl. Ambience)
Desktop syncNo,[133] but available on Samsung Kies & HTC Sense[134]YesYesYesYes?
Local full backupLimited backup for 4.0+ with ADB using external computer. Possible with 3rd party apps with rooted phones or a custom recovery[135]Yes, using external computer[136]No, removed in WP8,[137] was available on WP7 in Zune only when performing update, or anytime via 3rd party software[138][139]Yes, using external computer[140] and memory card (7+)[141]No[142]Yes
Core data missing syncBookmarks[143] (before 4), SMSs and Settings[144]Favorites,[145] Text Messages[146] and Settings[147]???
Notification centerYes5+[148]8.1+[89]6+[149]2+[150]Yes
Push notificationsYes[151]Yes (Apple Push Notification Service)Yes[152]Yes2+[153]Yes
Screenshot4+ also available on earlier versions with customized roms, such as Cyanogen Mod and the default Samsung Galaxy S II rom[154]Yes[70][155]8+[156]10+[157]Yes2.0.2+[158]
iCalendar importNo,[159] but 3rd party app available[160]Yes[161]3rd party software (only import not subscribe)[162]Yes[163]?[164]
Text/document support (read only; creating using third party apps)Microsoft Office Mobile, PDF, TXT/RTFMicrosoft Office,[165][166][167] iWork, PDF, Images, TXT/RTF, VCFMicrosoft Office 2003/2007, PDF, Images, TXT/RTFMicrosoft Office, PDF, OpenDocument, TXTRead only: text files, PDF, HTML, Multiple office formatsMicrosoft Office, OpenDocument, PDF, Text
Printer support4.4+ using Google Cloud Print[168] but not over USB[169]Yes (AirPrint)[170]10+[171]YesNo?
Show remembered Wi-Fi connectionsYes|style="background:#9F9;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center;" class="table-yes"|YesYesYes?Yes


FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS
Default web browser/engineBlinkWebKitTrident (EdgeHTML after 10)WebKitWebKitGecko[172]
Major web browser availableChrome for Android, Opera, FirefoxSafari, Chrome for iOS, Opera Mini, Firefox, Microsoft EdgeInternet Explorer, Opera Mini, UC Browser, Microsoft EdgeBlackBerry 10 Browser, Opera Mini, FirefoxTizen Browser (Based on UC Browser)Sailfish Browser (Firefox), Webcat (WebKit), Web Pirate (WebKit), others via Android (Firefox, Chrome, Opera)
Browser extensionsNo[173] 3rd party software[174]8+[175]No, 3rd party software[176]NoNoNo
Browser direct Internet connection (increased resilience to outages)YesYesYes10+,[177] 7.1 and older route through BlackBerry Internet Service, direct browsing supported over WiFiYes?
Browser undo close tab3rd party software Google Chrome for Android[178]8+[179]NoNoNoNo
Browser keeps windows open on shutdown or crash2.3+ Google Chrome[180] but not on main browser[181]YesYes10+ Opens dialog for choosing which websites to restore after crash, option to restore all sites after restartNoYes
Browser keeps windows open when cleaning cookiesYes3rd party software[182]YesYes?Yes
Browser search engine optionsMany[183]Bing, Google, Yahoo! Search, DuckDuckGoBing, Google support removed on some markets on 8.1 GDR1+[184]
W10M: Many
Bing,, Google, Wikipedia, Yahoo, User DefinedBing, Google, Yahoo! SearchBing, Google, Yahoo, Yandex. Baidu, DuckDuckGo, StartPage, Searx, ixquick, Swisscows, Qwant, Seznam, Hulbee via openrepos[185]
Browser find on page1.5+[186]4.2+[187]8+[188]Yes[189]Yes1.1.2.16+[190]
Browser/email save imagesYesYes[191]Yes[192]Yes?Yes
Browser/email save PDFsYesYes[70]Yes[193]YesYesYes
Browser save audio/videoYes, but only links, not embedded media3rd party software[194]8.1+[195]Yes (embedded media not supported)YesYes
Browser save pageYes, Google Chrome 55+[196]6+: Offline Reading List;[197] 3rd party software[198]10+[199]Yes[200]Yes?
Browser save any fileNo,[201] 3rd party software[202]|style="background:#9F9;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center;" class="table-yes"|Yes8.1+[195]10+?Yes
Browser force enable zoomNo, not working anymore on Android 4.4[203]Yes[204]Yes, via accessibility settingsYes,via accessibility settings??
Browser text reflow[205]No, removed on Android 4.4[206][207]5+: Only on pages with reader mode available[208] 3rd party browsers on prior versions[210]Only on pages available on reading view on 8.1+Yes[211] 10+ Only in reader modeNoNo
Browser Reader ModeNo,[212] 3rd party software[213][214]5+[208]8.1+[215]10+[216]YesNo[217]
Browser file upload2.2+[218]9+;
6-8: Limited
Browser form navigationNext button[221]Previous, Next, AutoFill, and Done buttons[222]YesYes[219]??
Browser private browsing mode3.0+[223] or with rooted devices and 3rd party firmware[224]5+[225]8.1+[89]10+[226]Yes1.1.6.27+[227]
Offline web appsYes[228]Yes[229][230][231]??No?
HTTP Live Streaming3+[232]3+[233]10+[234]10+[235]No?[236]

Communication and connectivity[edit]

FeatureAndroidiOSWindows 10 MobileBlackBerry 10TizenSailfish OS
Unified InboxNo,[239] but 3rd party apps available[240]Yes7.5+[241]YesYesYes
Email sync protocols supportedPOP3, IMAP, MAPIPOP3, IMAP, MAPI, ActiveSync[242]POP3, IMAP, MAPI, ActiveSyncBES, BIS, Push e-mail, 10+: POP3, IMAP, ActiveSyncPOP3, IMAPPOP3, IMAP, ActiveSync
Non-carrier-based integrated messagingGoogle Hangouts5+ (iMessage)[243]Skype[244]BBM?3rd party software
Visual voicemail2.1+[245]YesYes[246]Yes??
Call log durationYes[247]Yes[248]8.1+[249]Yes[250]?Yes
Multiple mobile phones per contactYesYesYesYes?Yes
Contact groups4+[251] or 3rd party software[252]Via iCloud or 3rd party software[253]7.5+[254]YesYesNo[255]
Voice over IPYes (SIP)[256] or 3rd party software[257]FaceTime; 3rd party software[258]8+ Skype[259]BBM 7+[260] or 3rd party software[261]No[262]3rd party software
NFC payment softwareAvailable on any device that supports the hardware. Android Pay for NFC payments available in Play Store.[263]8+: iPhone 6/6 Plus and later (iPhone 5 and later if used with Apple Watch), via Apple Pay8+[264]Yes[265]NoNo
TetheringMobile Wi-Fi Hotspot, USB, Bluetooth4.3+: Personal Hotspot (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, USB; carrier dependent)Internet Sharing (Wi-Fi Hotspot),[266] Bluetooth (8.1 Update+)USB, Bluetooth, Mobile Wi-Fi HotspotmicroUSB, Bluetooth 3.0, Mobile Wi-Fi HotspotMobile Wi-Fi Hotspot, USB, Bluetooth
USB On-The-Go3.1+[267][268]No10+[269]10.2+[270]NoYes
Direct file transfer over Wi-Fi Direct4+[56] and selected devices[271][272]No, 3rd party software on jailbroken devicesNo10.2+No, was available on bada 2+,[273] but removed on TizenNo[274]
Direct file transfer over Bluetooth2+[275]AirDrop:
7+: Between iOS only; 8+: Between Mac/iOS only. (Note: AirDrop utilizes Wi-Fi as well)
8+[276]YesNo, was available on bada,[277] but removed on TizenYes[278] but limited to images, videos and contacts
Direct file transfer over NFC
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