Essay Seasons In Pakistan

Pakistan lies in the temperate zone. The climate is generally arid, characterized by hot summers and cool or cold winters, and wide variations between extremes of temperature at given locations. There is little rainfall. These generalizations should not, however, obscure the distinct differences existing among particular locations. For example, the coastal area along the Arabian Sea is usually warm, whereas the frozen snow-covered ridges of the Karakoram Range and of other mountains of the far north are so cold year round that they are only accessible by world-class climbers for a few weeks in May and June of each year.

Pakistan has are four seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location.

The climate in the capital city of Islamabad varies from an average daily low of 2° C in January to an average daily high of 40° C in June. Half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August, averaging about 255 millimeters in each of those two months. The remainder of the year has significantly less rain, amounting to about fifty millimeters per month. Hailstorms are common in the spring.

Pakistan's largest city, Karachi, which is also the country's industrial center, is more humid than Islamabad but gets less rain. Only July and August average more than twenty-five millimeters of rain in the Karachi area; the remaining months are exceedingly dry. The temperature is also more uniform in Karachi than in Islamabad, ranging from an average daily low of 13° C during winter evenings to an average daily high of 34° C on summer days. Although the summer temperatures do not get as high as those in Punjab, the high humidity causes the residents a great deal of discomfort.

Most areas in Punjab experience fairly cool winters, often accompanied by rain. Woolen shawls are worn by women and men for warmth because few homes are heated. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in. The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46° C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51° C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54° C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.

Average temperatures of some popular destinations:

DESTINATIONS

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

ABBOTTABAD

07

12

18

23

28

32

30

28

28

25

20

14

ASTOR

-8

-5 

7

12 

 18 

 22 

26 

 28 

20 

13 

9

-5 

ATTOCK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AYUBIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAGROT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAHAWALPUR

18

20

24

28

30

34

36

35

31

29

20

11

BALTISTAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BALUCHISTAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BESHAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BHURBAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHILAS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHITRAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHOLISTAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DASSU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEOSAI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DRAWAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAISALABAD

18

21

26

33

37

40

36

35

33

30

25

19

GILGIT

8

11

15

21

25

29

33

33

29

24

16

9

GULMIT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GWADAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HARAPPA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HUNZA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HYDERABAD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ISLAMABAD

15

18

23

30

36

37

36

33

33

30

26

18

JHELUM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KAGHAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KALAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KALASH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KARACHI

24

25

27

30

33

33

32

30

30

32

30

25

KASHMIR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KHAIRPUR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KHAPLU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KHEWRA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KHUNJERAB

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KHYBER PASS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KKH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAHORE 

18

20

24

30

33

37

38

35

35

32

25

20

MOENJO DARO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MULTAN

20

22

27

35

40

41

39

36

34

32

27

20

MURREE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUZAFARABAD

13

15

18

23

26

29

28

27

27

25

20

15

NAGAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NARAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATHIAGALI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PASSU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PESHAWAR

18

20

23

28

34

34

35

32

30

29

25

18

QUETTA

10

12

17

22

28

32

32

33

29

24

18

13

RAWALPINDI

15

17

22

28

35

35

36

33

30

30

23

18

ROHTAS FORT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHANDUR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SKARDU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOST

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUKKAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SWAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAXILA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TARBELA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THAKT E BAI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THAR DESERT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THATTA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TILLA JOGIAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UCH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ZIARAT

 

Pakistan recorded one of the highest temperatures in the world – 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) – on 26 May 2010, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan, but also the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded on the continent of Asia.[1][2] As Pakistan is located on a great landmass north of the Tropic of Cancer (between latitudes 25° and 36° N), it has a continental type of climate characterized by extreme variations of temperature, both seasonally and daily. Very high altitudes modify the climate in the cold, snow-covered northern mountains; temperatures on the Balochistan Plateau are somewhat higher. Along the coastal strip, the climate is modified by sea breezes. In the rest of the country, temperatures reach great heights in the summer; the mean temperature during June is 38 °F (3 °C) in the plains, the highest temperatures can exceed 47 °C (117 °F). In the summer, hot winds called Loo blow across the plains during the day. Trees shed their leaves to avoid loss of moisture. The dry, hot weather is broken occasionally by dust storms and thunderstorms that temporarily lower the temperature. Evenings are cool; the diurnal variation in temperature may be as much as 11C to 17C. Winters are cold, with minimum mean temperatures in Punjab of about 4 °C (39 °F) in January, and sub-zero temperatures in the far north and Balochistan.

The monsoon and the Western Disturbance are the two main factors which alter the weather over Pakistan; otherwise, Continental air prevails for rest of the year. Following are the main factors that influence the weather over Pakistan.

  • Western Disturbances mostly occur during the winter months and cause light to moderate showers in southern parts of the country while moderate to heavy showers with heavy snowfall in the northern parts of the country. These westerly waves are robbed of most of the moisture by the time they reach Pakistan.
  • Fog occurs during the winter season and remains for weeks in upper Sindh, central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
  • Southwest Monsoon occurs in summer from the month of June till September in almost whole Pakistan excluding western Balochistan, FATA, Chitral and Gilgit–Baltistan. Monsoon rains bring much awaited relief from the scorching summer heat. These monsoon rains are quite heavy by nature and can cause significant flooding, even severe flooding if they interact with westerly waves in the upper parts of the country.
  • Tropical Storms usually form during the summer months from late April till June and then from late September till November. They affect the coastal localities of the country.
  • Dust storms occur during summer months with peak in May and June, They are locally known as Andhi. These dust storms are quite violent. Dust storms during the early summer indicate the arrival of the monsoons while dust storms in the autumn indicate the arrival of winter.
  • Heat waves occur during May and June, especially in southern Punjab, central Balochistan and interior Sindh.
  • Thunderstorms most commonly occur in northern Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Azad Kashmir.
  • Continental air prevails during the period when there is no precipitation in the country.

Pakistan has four seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location.

The climate in the capital city of Islamabad varies from an average daily low of 2 °C in January to an average daily high of 38 °C in June. Half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August, averaging about 255 millimeters in each of those two months. The remainder of the year has significantly less rain, amounting to about fifty millimeters per month. Hailstorms are common in the spring.

Pakistan's largest city, Karachi, which is also the country's industrial center, is more humid than Islamabad but gets less rain. Only July and August average more than twenty-five millimeters of rain in the Karachi area; the remaining months are exceedingly dry. The temperature is also more uniform in Karachi than in Islamabad, ranging from an average daily low of 13 °C during winter evenings to an average daily high of 34 °C on summer days. Although the summer temperatures do not get as high as those in Punjab, the high humidity causes the residents a great deal of discomfort. In Islamabad, there are cold winds from the north of Pakistan.[3]

Extreme weather events[edit]

Highest temperature and rainfall ever recorded[edit]

Main article: List of extreme weather records in Pakistan

The weather extremes in Pakistan include high and low temperatures, heaviest rainfall and flooding. The highest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan is 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) which was recorded in Mohenjo-daro, Sindh on 26 May 2010. It was not only the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan but also the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded on the continent of Asia.[4][5] and the fourth highest temperature ever recorded on earth. The highest rainfall of 620 millimetres (24 in) was recorded in Islamabad during 24 hours on 24 July 2001. The record-breaking rain fell in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the previous 100 years.

Tropical cyclones and tornadoes[edit]

Main article: Tropical cyclones and tornadoes in Pakistan

Each year before the onset of monsoon that is 15 April to 15 July and also after its withdrawal that is 15 September to 15 December, there is always a distinct possibility of the cyclonic storm to develop in the north Arabian Sea. Cyclones form in the Arabian sea often results in strong winds and heavy rainfall in Pakistan's coastal areas. However tornadoes mostly occur during spring season that is March and April usually when a Western Disturbance starts effecting the northern parts of the country. It is also speculated that cycles of tornado years may be correlated to the periods of reduced tropical cyclone activity.

Drought[edit]

Main article: Drought in Pakistan

The drought has become a frequent phenomenon in the country. Already, the massive droughts of 1998-2002 has stretched the coping abilities of the existing systems to the limit and it has barely been able to check the situation from becoming a catastrophe. The drought of 1998-2002 is considered worst in 50 years. According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan, the drought was one of the most significant factors responsible for the less than anticipated growth performance. The survey terms it as the worst drought in the history of the country. According to the government, 40 percent of the country's water needs went unmet.[6][7]

Floods[edit]

Main articles: Monsoon of South Asia and List of floods in Pakistan

Pakistan has seen many floods, the worst and most destructive is the recent 2010 Pakistan floods, other floods which caused destruction in the history of Pakistan, include the flood of 1950, which killed 2910 people; on 1 July 1977 heavy rains and flooding in Karachi, killed 248 people, according to Pakistan meteorological department 207 millimetres (8.1 in) of rain fell in 24 hours.[8] In 1992 flooding during Monsoon season killed 1,834 people across the country, in 1993 flooding during Monsoon rains killed 3,084 people, in 2003 Sindh province was badly affected due to monsoon rains causing damages in billions, killed 178 people, while in 2007 Cyclone Yemyin submerged lower part of Balochistan Province in sea water killing 380 people. Before that it killed 213 people in Karachi on its way to Balochistan.

2010 Floods[edit]

Main article: 2010 Pakistan floods

2010 July floods swept 20% of Pakistan's land, the flood is the result of unprecedented Monsoon rains which lasted from 28 July to 31 July 2010. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and North eastern Punjab were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed. By mid-August, according to the governmental Federal Flood Commission (FFC), the floods had caused the deaths of at least 1,540 people, while 2,088 people had received injuries, 557,226 houses had been destroyed, and over 6 million people had been displaced.[9] One month later, the data had been updated to reveal 1,781 deaths, 2,966 people with injuries, and more than 1.89 million homes destroyed.[10] The flood affected more than 20 million people exceeding the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[11][12] The flood is considered as worst in Pakistan's history affecting people of all four provinces and Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan.[13]

2011 Sindh floods[edit]

Main article: 2011 Sindh floods

The 2011 Sindh floods began during the monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, Eastern Balochistan, and Southern Punjab.[14] The floods have caused considerable damage; an estimated 270 civilians have been killed, with 5.3 million people and 1.2 million homes affected.[15] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy is said to be extensive. At least 1.7 million acres of arable land has been inundated as a result of the flooding.[15] The flooding has been described as the worst since the 2010 Pakistan floods, which devastated the entire country.[15] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh province.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Paksitan map of Köppen climate classification.
Regions where Snow Falls in Pakistan (Region: Northern half of Azad Kashmir, Gilgit–Baltistan, Extreme northern Punjab, Northern half of Khyber-Pakhtunkhawa province and Northern Balochistan. Personal estimation.)
  1. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-09-06. 
  2. ^http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html/entrynum=1559&tstamp=
  3. ^http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/25.htm
  4. ^"Wunder Blog : Weather Underground". Wunderground.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  5. ^"Pakmet.com.pk :Extreme Heat wave in Pakistan". Pakmet.com.pk. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  6. ^"Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  7. ^http://www.recoveryplatform.org/assets/publication/9%20sept/Drought/drought%20coping%20in%20afghanistan.pdf
  8. ^"Dawn.com: Heavy Rain in Karachi". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  9. ^Ahmadani A (August 19, 2010). "Heavily Funded FFC Fails to Deliver". TheNation. Retrieved October 17, 2010. 
  10. ^Singapore Red Cross (September 15, 2010). "Pakistan Floods:The Deluge of Disaster - Facts & Figures as of 15 September 2010". Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  11. ^South Asia, BBC News (14 August 2010). "Floods affect 20m people – Pakistan PM Gilani". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  12. ^"Floods in Pakistan worse than tsunami, Haiti". gulfnews. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  13. ^"Dawn.com : 2010 Pakistan Floods". Dawn.com. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  14. ^"Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response". BBC World News South Asia. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  15. ^ abc"Floods worsen, 270 killed: officials". The Express Tribune. September 13, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011. 
  16. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2010-12-26. 
Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Essay Seasons In Pakistan”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *