Labor Unions A Push Essay Rubrics


NAPLAN: Push to have robots mark school tests under fire from prominent US academic

By education reporter Natasha Robinson

Updated October 12, 2017 15:01:29

A push to have robots mark English tasks in NAPLAN testing has come under attack, with a prominent US academic calling for a halt to the plans, claiming there are major flaws.

From next year, NAPLAN writing tasks will be marked by an automated essay scoring system. They will be double-marked by a teacher.

It is part of a plan to introduce fully automated marking and testing by 2020.

The proposal has outraged teachers' unions, who argue it is impossible for a robot to score the subjective aspects of writing.

Now a US academic has joined the fray, warning Australian educators to proceed with extreme caution.

Les Perelman, a retired professor from the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), said it would disadvantage many students because the algorithms used tend to reward "verbose gibberish" and give higher marks to essays that use complex words and sentences.

Dr Perelman, a former director of writing at MIT, has published widely on writing assessment and was commissioned by the NSW Teacher's Federation to review a 2015 paper by the Australian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (ACARA) that concluded automated essay scoring was as effective, if not more so, than human markers.

The US academic criticised the document, saying it relies on "hearsay evidence, extremely dubious methodology and incorrect information".

"The flaws in the report are so major that it cannot justify any use of AES in high-testing situations," Dr Perelman said in his report.

"Assessment of creativity, poetry, irony or other more artistic uses of writing is beyond such systems."

Automated marking 'as reliable' as humans, ACARA says

Stanley Rabinowitz, the general manager of assessment and reporting at ACARA, said he had not yet seen Dr Perelman's report but rejected its criticism.

"If we were testing irony and humour I would be just as sceptical," he said, defending the automated system.

"We're not saying it could mark anything, we're not saying it could mark a university paper or a very short answer, but for the narrative and persuasive prompts that we have using the NAPLAN writing rubric, it works as well as human markers."

Dr Perelman is a prominent critic of robot marking in the US and is partly responsible for the winding back of automated essay scoring there.

In 2014, with MIT postgraduate students, he created a program called the Babel Generator, which generates essays, based on three keyword prompts, that computers mark highly even though they read as complete nonsense.

Dr Rabinowitz said ACARA's 2015 paper was well thought-out and evidence-based, and that the authority had additional research to be released next month that would further justify automated marking.

"ACARA's extensive research indicates automated marking is as reliable and valid as human marking," Dr Rabinowitz said.

"There is a significant body of independent international research supporting the validity and reliability of automated marking."

Union 'seriously concerned' about NAPLAN scoring

NSW Teacher's Federation acting president Gary Zadkovich called on ACARA to suspend its plan to introduce automated essay scoring.

"We're seriously concerned about the proposal to move to computer robot marking of extended prose by students," Mr Zadkovich said.

"No machine has the capacity to assess creative flair, imaginative use of language, humour, irony, tone, and deliberate repetition.

"We believe that parents expect their students to be taught by teachers, and similarly they expect those teachers to assess their students' work."

The education company Pearson Australia holds contracts to administer NAPLAN testing in most states, and automated essay scoring systems would be used to mark tests.

Mr Zadkovich said the union was concerned that the move towards robot marking would further entrench the influence of profit-making companies in public education.

The NSW English Teachers Association said it did not specifically endorse automated marking outright, and wanted to see firm controls in place.

"If it is applied to extended prose, particularly creative writing, we would like to see that computer marking is tested against human marking, and continually so, to ensure that the programming behind the computer is sufficiently sophisticated, allowing for nuances of expression and creative expression that's so valued in English," said the association's executive officer Eva Gold.

Topics:education, primary-schools, public-schools, secondary-schools, schools, australia

First posted October 12, 2017 00:25:48

Key points:

  • Academic says assessing "artistic" uses of writing beyond automated systems
  • Assessment authority defends system, says it's "as reliable" as human marking
  • Teachers Union "seriously concerned" about "computer robot marking"

What is NAPLAN and is it important?

  • The National Assessment Program tests the literacy and numeracy skills of students in years 3, 5, 7 and 9
  • Students cannot pass or fail the assessment
  • The annual testing is designed to help governments and schools gauge whether students are meeting key educational outcomes
  • The results help identify strengths and address areas that need to be improved
  • Schools and parents can see how an individual student's learning is tracking compared to their classmates and the national average

Labor Unions in the Late 1800's Essay

820 Words4 Pages

Labor Unions in the Late 1800's

Labor unions in the late 1800's set out to improve the lives of frequently abused workers. Volatile issues like the eight-hour workday, ridiculously low pay and unfair company town practices were often the fuses that lit explosive conflicts between unions and monopolistic industrialists. Some of the most violent and important conflicts of the time were the Haymarket Affair and the Pullman strike. Each set out to with similar goals and both ended with horrifying consequences. The movement for the eight-hour workday was one of the most violent struggles for laborers. Their struggle is defined by protests that were broken up by the police and the Pinkertons. The Pinkertons were a mercenary police group…show more content…

Many homes, meeting halls, and offices where outspoken supporters of the eight-hour movement lived and worked were raided without warrant. Oscar Neebe, Adolph Fisher, August Spies, Louis Lingg, Michael Schwab, Samuel Fielden, Carl Engel, and Albert Parsons were charged with the trumped up charge of accessory to murder for the riot. They were all brought to trial, even though many of the men were not even at Haymarket Square at the time of the melee.
With a jury of twelve men found all of the defendants guilty. After an appeal to the Supreme Court, Spies, Parsons, Fischer and Engel were sentenced to hang. Neebe, Fielden and Schwab were given life sentences. Louis Lingg most likely would have served a life sentence as well, however, he committed suicide.
"[Pullman] is, in fact, philanthropy made practical; humanity, founded on business principles; sobriety, art music, clean living, refined homes, self-respecting independence of character without paternalism; a vindication of the theory that there is an economical value in beauty, and that the workingman is capable of appreciating and wisely using the highest ministries of art and beauty."
--Chicago Times, 10 January 1891
The Pullman Strike of 1894 was the first national strike in United States history. George Pullman of Pullman Rail Cars founded the town of Pullman as a place where his workers could live. A problem arose

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