Assignment 06.03 Protists Resume

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  • [0001]

    This application claims priority to and is a continuation of copending application Ser. No. 12/243,755 filed Oct. 1, 2008 which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/976,676 filed Oct. 1, 2007 and is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/655,345 filed Sep. 4, 2003, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/409,102 filed Sep. 9, 2002.

  • [0002]

    A. Field of the Invention

  • [0003]

    The invention relates generally to surface treatments such as a coating (e.g., a paint, a clear coat), a textile finish, a wax, elastomer, a filler, an adhesive, or a sealant, as well as polymeric materials such as a plastic, a laminate, a composite, comprising an enzyme that degrades cell wall or cell membrane components (e.g., a lysozyme, lytic transgrycosylase) alone or in combination with other enzymes (e.g., lipolytic enzyme, sulfuric ester hydrolase, organophosphorus compound degradation enzyme) that may confer additional properties to a coating or polymeric material.

  • [0004]

    B. Description of the Related Art

  • [0005]

    A coating (e.g., a paint, a clear coat), a textile finish, a wax, an elastomer, an adhesive, a sealant, or a filler generally are compositions used, for example, to protect, decorate, attach, or seal one or more surfaces, and underlying material(s), that they are applied. Such materials are commonly used in commercial and industrial applications. For example, a coating such as paint typically forms a solid protective, decorative, or functional adherent film on a surface. Polymeric materials comprise molecular polymers to form various shaped materials typically for consumer or industrial products, and whose surface of the polymeric material is subject to addition of a coating.

  • [0006]

    Biomolecules are molecules often produced and isolated from organisms, such as an enzyme which catalyzes a chemical reaction. Alexander Fleming discovered lysozyme (ca. 1922) during a search for antibiotics conducted over a period of years, when he added a drop of mucus to a growing bacterial culture and discovered it killed the bacteria. Lysozymes have widespread distribution in animals and plants, where it serves as a “natural antibiotic” protecting fluids and tissues that are rich in potential food for bacterial growth, such as egg white. As a part of the innate defense mechanism, lysozyme is found in many mammalian secretions and tissues, saliva, tears, milk, cervical mucus, leucocytes, kidneys, etc.

  • [0007]

    Lipolytic enzymes catalyze a reaction on a lipid substrate, such as a vegetable oil, a phospholipid, a sterol, and other hydrophobic molecules, generally to hydrolyze or move (e.g., intraesterification) an ester bond. Often lipolytic enzyme (e.g., lipase) catalyzed reactions are used for industrial or commercial purposes, such as alcohol or acid esterification, interesterification, and transesterification reactions, acidolysis, alcoholysis, and resolution of racemic alcohol and organic acid mixtures.

  • [0008]

    Various enzymes have been identified that detoxify organophosphorus compounds (“organophosphate compounds” or “OP compounds”) compounds, such as organophosphorus hydrolase (“OPH”), organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (“OPAA”), and DFPase, which detoxifies O,O-diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (“DFP”). Organophosphorus compounds and organosulfur (“OS”) compounds are used extensively as insecticides and are toxic to many organisms, including humans. OP compounds function as nerve agents. OP compounds have been used both as pesticides and chemical warfare agents.

  • [0009]

    Sulfuric ester hydrolase can catalyze reactions at sulfuric ester bonds. A peptidase catalyzes reactions at a peptide bond, and is reactions on peptides, polypeptides and proteins.

  • [0010]

    In general, the invention features a coating composition, comprising a coating that comprises an active enzyme, wherein the coating comprises an architectural coating, an automotive coating, a can coating, a sealant coating, a chemical agent resistant coating, a camouflage coating, a pipeline coating, a traffic marker coating, an aircraft coating, a nuclear power plant coating, or a combination thereof, and wherein the active enzyme comprises an antimicrobial enzyme, an antifouling enzyme, a peptidase, an esterase, a petroleum lipolytic enzyme, or a combination thereof. In specific embodiments, the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lysozyme, a lysostaphin, a libiase, a lysyl endopeptidase, a mutanolysin, a cellulase, a chitinase, an α-agarase, an β-agarase, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, a lytic transglycosylase, a glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase, an endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase, a β-lytic metalloendopeptidase, a 3-deoxy-2-octulosonidase, a peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase, a mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, a τ-carrageenase, a κ-carrageenase, a λ-carrageenase, an α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide hydrolase, an endolysin, an autolysin, a mannoprotein protease, a glucanase, a mannase, a zymolase, a lyticase. a lipolytic enzyme, or a combination thereof. In specific embodiments, the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme catalyzes a reaction that degrades a cell wall or cell membrane. In specific embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phospholipase.

  • [0011]

    In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lysozyme. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lysostaphin. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a libiase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lysyl endopeptidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a mutanolysin. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a cellulase. The coating of claim 8, wherein the cellulase comprises a α-cellulase. 1 The coating of claim 8, wherein the cellulase comprises a β-cellulase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a chitinase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an α-agarase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an β-agarase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lytic transglycosylase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a β-lytic metalloendopeptidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a 3-deoxy-2-octulosonidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a τ-carrageenase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a κ-carrageenase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a λ-carrageenase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide hydrolase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an endolysin. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises an autolysin. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a mannoprotein protease. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a glucanase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a mannase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a zymolase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lyticase. In some aspects the antimicrobial enzyme or antifouling enzyme comprises a lipolytic enzyme. In some embodiments, the esterase comprises a lipolytic enzyme, a sulfuric ester hydrolase, phosphoric triester hydrolase, or a combination thereof.

  • [0012]

    In some embodiments, the peptidase possessing esterase activity.

  • [0013]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a plurality of active enzymes.

  • [0014]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an interior coating.

  • [0015]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme catalyzes a reaction on a substrate comprising a fatty acid.

  • [0016]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a carboxylesterase, a lipase, a lipoprotein lipase, an acylglycerol lipase, a hormone-sensitive lipase, a phospholipase A1, a phospholipases A2, a phosphatidylinositol deacylase, a phospholipase C, a phospholipase D, a phosphoinositide phospholipase C, a phosphatidate phosphatase, a lysophospholipase, a sterol esterase, a galactolipase, a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases D, a ceramidase, a wax-ester hydrolase, a fatty-acyl-ethyl-ester synthase, a retinyl-palmitate esterase, a 11-cis-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, an all-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase, a cutinase, an acyloxyacyl hydrolase, or a combination thereof.

  • [0017]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a combination of lipolytic enzymes.

  • [0018]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a carboxylesterase derived from Actinidia deliciosa, Aedes aegypti, Aeropyrum pernix, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Aphis gossypii, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Aspergillus clavatus, Athalia rosae, Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bombyx mandarina, Bombyx mori, Bos taurus, Burkholderia gladioli, Caenorhabditis elegans, Canis familiaris, Cavia porcellus, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Felis catus, Fervidobacterium nodosum, Helicoverpa armigera, Homo sapiens, Macaca fascicularis, Malus pumila, Mesocricetus auratus, Mus musculus, Musca domestica, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Myxococcus xanthus, Neosartorya fischeri, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Paeonia suffruticosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rattus norvegicus, Rubrobacter xylanophilus, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Sulfolobus shibatae, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sus scrofa, Thermotoga maritime, Thermus thermophilus, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vibrio harveyi, Xenopsylla cheopis, Yarrowia lipolytica, or a combination thereof.

  • [0019]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a thermophilic carboxylesterase derived from Aeropyrum pernix, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Bacillus acidocaldarius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sulfolobus shibatae, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Thermotoga maritime, or a combination thereof.

  • [0020]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a lipase derived from Acinetobacter, Aedes aegypti, Anguilla japonica, Antrodia cinnamomea, Arabidopsis rosette, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arxula adeninivorans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus tamarii, Aureobasidium pullulans, Avena sativa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus the rmocatenulatus, Bacillus thennoleovorans, Bombyx mandarina, Bombyx mori, Bos Taurus, Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, Burkholderia cepacia, Caenorhabditis elegans, Candida albicans, Candida antarctica, Candida deformans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida thennophila, Canis domesticus, Chenopodium rubrum, Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi, Danio rerio, Galactomyces geotrichum, Gallus gallus, Geobacillus, Gibberella zeae, Gossypium hirsutum, Homo sapiens, Kurtzmanomyces sp., Leishmania infantum, Lycopersicon esculentum L, Malassezia furfur, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Mus musculus, Mus spretus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Myxococcus xanthus, Neosartorya fischeri, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Oryza sativa, Penicillium cyclopium, Phlebotomus papatasi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas sp, Rattus norvegicus, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Ricinus communis, Samia cynthia ricini, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Serratia marcescens, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus xylosus, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sus scrofa, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Vibrio harveyi, Xenopus laevis, Yarrowia lipolytica, or a combination thereof.

  • [0021]

    In some embodiments, the lipase comprises a themophilic lipase derived from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thennoleovorans, Candida rugosa, Candida thennophila, GeoBacillus thermoleovorans Toshki, Pseudomonas fragi, Staphylococcus xylosus, Sulfolobus solfataricus, or a combination thereof.

  • [0022]

    In some embodiments, the lipase comprises a psychrophilic lipase derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  • [0023]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a lipoprotein lipase derived from Capra hircus, Danio rerio, Felis catus, Homo sapiens, Mesocricetus auratus, Mus musculus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pagrus major, Papio Anubis, Rattus norvegicus, Sparus aurata, Sus scrofa, Thunnus orientalis, or a combination thereof.

  • [0024]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises an acylglycerol lipase derived from Bacillus sp., Danio rerio, Homo sapiens, Leishmania infantum, Mus musculus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Penicillium camembertii, Rattus norvegicus, Solanum tuberosum, or a combination thereof.

  • [0025]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a hormone sensitive lipase derived from Bos Taurus, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, Sus scrofa, Tetrahymena thermophila, or a combination thereof.

  • [0026]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phospholipase A1 derived from Arabidopsis, Aspergillus oryzae, Bos Taurus, Brassica rapa, Caenorhabditis elegans, Capsicum annuum, Danio rerio, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Nicotiana tabacum, Polistes annularis, Polybia paulista, Rattus norvegicus, Serratia sp., Vespula vulgaris, or a combination thereof.

  • [0027]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phospholipase A2 derived from Acanthaster planci, Adamsia carciniopado, Aedes aegypti, Aeropyrum pernix, Aipysurus eydouxii, Apis mellifera, Arabidopsis thaliana, Aspergillus nidulans, Austrelaps superbus, Bitis gabonica, Bos taurus, Bothriechis schlegelii, Bothrops jararacussu, BrachyDanio rerio, Bungarus caeruleus, Bungarus fasciatus, Canis familiaris, Cavia sp., Cerrophidion godmani, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chrysophrys major, Crotalus viridis viridis, Daboia russellii, Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster, Echis carinatus, Echis ocellatus, Echis pyramidum leakeyi, Emericella nidulans, Equus caballus, Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Lapemis hardwickii, Laticauda semifasciata, Micrurus corallines, Mus musculus, Mytilus edulis, Naja kaouthia, Naja naja, Naja naja sputatrix, Nicotiana tabacum, Ophiophagus hannah, Ornithodoros parkeri, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pagrus major, Patina pectinifera, Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Rattus norvegicus, Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus, Trimeresurus borneensis, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Trimeresurus gracilis, Trimeresurus gramineus, Trimeresurus okinavensis, Trimeresurus puniceus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Tuber borchii, Urticina crassicornis, Vipera russelli siamensis, Xenopus laevis, Xenopus tropicalis, or a combination thereof.

  • [0028]

    In some embodiments, the phospholipase A2 comprises a thermophilic phospholipase A2 derived from Aeropyrum pernix.

  • [0029]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phospholipase C derived from Aedes aegypti, Aplysia californica, Arabidopsis thaliana, Asterina miniata, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bos taurus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Chaetopterus pergamentaceus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cotumix japonica, Danio rerio, Dictyostelium discoideum, Drosophila melanogaster, Gallus gallus, Homarus americanus, Homo sapiens, Loligo pealei, Lytechinus pictus, Meleagris gallopavo, Misgumus mizolepis, Mus musculus, Nicotiana tabacum, Oryza sativa, Oryzias latipes, Petunia inflate, Pichia stipitis, Pisum sativum, Plasmodium falciparum, Rattus norvegicus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Sus scrofa, Torenia fournieri, Toxoplasma gondii, Watasenia scintillans, Xenopus laevis, Zea mays, or a combination thereof.

  • [0030]

    In some embodiments, the phospholipase C comprises a thermophilic phospholipase C derived from Bacillus cereus.

  • [0031]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phospholipase D derived from Aedes aegypti, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arachis hypogaea, Bos taurus, Brassica oleracea, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cricetulus griseus, Cucumis melo var. inodorus, Cucumis sativus, Dictyostelium discoideum, Drosophila melanogaster, Emericella nidulans, Fragaria ananassa, Gossypium hirsutum, Homo sapiens, Lolium temulentum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mus musculus, Oryza sativa, Papaver somniferum, Paralichthys olivaceus, Pichia stipitis, Pimpinella brachycarpa, Rattus norvegicus, Ricinus communis, Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum, Vigna unguiculata, Vitis vinifera, Zea mays, or a combination thereof.

  • [0032]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phosphoinositide phospholipase C derived from Arabidopsis thaliana, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Brassica napus, Homo sapiens, Leishmania infantum, Mus musculus, Neosartorya fischeri, Physcomitrella patens, Pichia stipitis, Rattus norvegicus, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei, Vigna unguiculata, Xenopus tropicalis, Zea mays, or a combination thereof.

  • [0033]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a phosphatidate phosphatase derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or a combination thereof.

  • [0034]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a lysophospholipase derived from Aedes aegypti, Argas monolakensis, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bos Taurus, Cavia porcellus, Clonorchis sinensis, Danio rerio, Dictyostelium discoideum, Emericella nidulans, Giardia lamblia, Homo sapiens, Monodelphis domestica, Mus musculus, Neosartorya fischeri, Pichia jadinii, Pichia stipitis, Rattus norvegicus, Schistosoma japonicum, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Xenopus tropicalis, or a combination thereof.

  • [0035]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a sterol esterase derived from Candida rugosa, Homo sapiens, Melanocarpus albomyces, Rattus norvegicus, or a combination thereof.

  • [0036]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a galactolipase derived from Homo sapiens, Solanum tuberosum, Vigna unguiculata, or a combination thereof.

  • [0037]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase derived from Bacillus cereus, Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas sp., or a combination thereof.

  • [0038]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a ceramidase derived from Homo sapiens, Pseudomonas, or a combination thereof.

  • [0039]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a retinyl palmitate esterase derived from Bos Taurus.

  • [0040]

    In some embodiments, the lipolytic enzyme comprises a cutinase derived from Fusarium solani pisi, Monilinia fructicola, Pseudomonas putida, or a combination thereof.

  • [0041]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a mesophilic enzyme, a psychrophilic enzyme, a thermophilic enzyme, a halophilic enzyme, or a combination thereof.

  • [0042]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a combination of enzymes.

  • [0043]

    In some embodiments, the thermophilic enzyme is derived from a thermophilic organism.

  • [0044]

    In some embodiments, the thermophilic organism comprises Acidianus, Archaeoglobus, Desulfurococcus, Hyperthermus, Metallosphaera, Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, Methanohalobium, Methanosarcina, Methanothermus, Methanosaeta, Methanothrix, Pyrobaculum, Pyrococcus, Pyrodictium, Staphylothermus, Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Thermofilum, Thermoproteus, Clostridium, Desulfotomaculum, Rubrobacter, Saccharococcus, Sphaerobacter, Thermacetogenium, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobium, or a combination thereof.

  • [0045]

    In some embodiments, the psychrophilic enzyme is derived a psychrophilic organism.

  • [0046]

    In some embodiments, the psychrophilic organism comprises Moritella, Leifsonia aurea, Methanococcoides burtonii, or a combination thereof.

  • [0047]

    In some embodiments, the halophilic enzyme is derived a halophilic organism.

  • [0048]

    In some embodiments, the halophilic organism comprises Halobacterium, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halogeometricum, Haloterrigena, Halorubrum, Haloarcula, or a combination thereof.

  • [0049]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a stimulator of enzyme activity.

  • [0050]

    In some embodiments, the stimulator comprises a co-lipase, an apolipoprotein, sodium taurocholate, bile salts, Ca2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, Zn2+, dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, p-xylene, n-decane, a detergent, or a combination thereof.

  • [0051]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises an immobilization carrier.

  • [0052]

    In some embodiments, the immobilization carrier comprises a reverse micelle, zeolite, Celite Hyflo Supercel, a resin, diatomaceous earth, a polyurethane foam particle, macroporous polypropylene Accurel® EP 100, a macroporous anionic resin bead, polypropylene membrane, acrylic membrane, nylon membrane, cellulose ester membrane, polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, filter paper, teflon membrane, ceramic membrane, a macroporous packing particulate, polyamide, cellulose hollow fibre, a polypropylene membrane pretreated with a blocked copolymer, an immunoglobin, agarose, a gel, or a combination thereof.

  • [0053]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a purified active enzyme.

  • [0054]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a cell-based particulate material.

  • [0055]

    In some embodiments, the cell-based particulate material comprises a cell wall, a test, a frustule, a pellicle, a viral proteinaceous outer coat, or a combination thereof.

  • [0056]

    In some embodiments, the cell-based material comprises a multicellular-based particulate material.

  • [0057]

    In some embodiments, the cell-based particulate material comprises a microorganism-based particulate material.

  • [0058]

    In some embodiments, the cell-based particulate material is a whole cell particulate material.

  • [0059]

    In some embodiments, the cell-based particulate material is a cell fragment particulate material.

  • [0060]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme is prepared in a material that is attenuated.

  • [0061]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme is prepared in a material that is sterilized.

  • [0062]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a petroleum lipolytic enzyme.

  • [0063]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a plurality of petroleum lipolytic enzymes.

  • [0064]

    In some embodiments, the petroleum lipolytic enzyme is derived from an organism that degrades a petroleum lipid.

  • [0065]

    In some embodiments, the petroleum lipolytic enzyme is derived from Azoarcus, Blastochloris, Burkholderia, Dechloromonas, Desulfobacterium, Desulfobacula, Geobacter, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas, Thauera, Vibrio, or a combination thereof.

  • [0066]

    In some embodiments, the petroleum lipolytic enzyme is derived from Azoarcus sp. strain EB1, Azoarcus sp. strain T, Azoarcus tolulyticus Td15, Azoarcus tolulyticus To14, Blastochloris sulfoviridis ToP1, Blastochloris ToP1, Burkholderia sp. strain RP007, Dechloromonas sp. strain JJ, Dechloromonas sp. strain RCB, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain AK-01, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain Hxd3, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain mXyS1, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain NaphS2, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain oXyS1, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain Pnd3, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain PRTOL1, Desulfobacterium cetonicum strain TD3, Desulfobacterium cetonicum, Desulfobacula toluolica To12, Geobacter 7210 metallireducens GS15, Geobacter grbiciae TACP-2T, Geobacter grbiciae TACP-5, Geobacter metallireducens GS 15, Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1, Pseudomonas putida NCIB9816, Pseudomonas putida OUS82, Pseudomonas sp. strain C18, Pseudomonas sp. strain EbN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain HdN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain HxN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain M3, Pseudomonas sp. strain mXyN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain NAP-3, Pseudomonas sp. strain OcN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain PbN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain pCyN1, Pseudomonas sp. strain pCyN2, Pseudomonas sp. strain T3, Pseudomonas sp. strain ToN1, Pseudomonas stutzeri AN10, Rhodococcus sp. strain 124, Sphingomonas paucimobilis var. EPA505, Thauera aromatica K172, Thauera aromatica T1, Vibrio sp. strain NAP-4, or a combination thereof.

  • [0067]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 0.1% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0068]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 1% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0069]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 2% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0070]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 3% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0071]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 4% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0072]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 5% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0073]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 6% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0074]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 7% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0075]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 8% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0076]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 9% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0077]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises about 10% to about 80% of the coating by weight or volume.

  • [0078]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a particulate material.

  • [0079]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 50 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0080]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 151 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0081]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 241 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0082]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 482 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0083]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 753 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0084]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 1,000 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0085]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 1,506 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0086]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 2,108 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0087]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 3,613 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0088]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 4,818 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0089]

    In some embodiments, the average wet molecular weight or dry molecular weight of a primary particle of the particulate material is about 6,022 kDa to about 1.5×1014 kDa.

  • [0090]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 0.0000001% to about 100%.

  • [0091]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 0.001% to about 100%.

  • [0092]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 0.1% to about 100%.

  • [0093]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 1.0% to about 100%.

  • [0094]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 2.0% to about 100%.

  • [0095]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 5.0% to about 100%.

  • [0096]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 7.5% to about 100%.

  • [0097]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 10.0% to about 100%.

  • [0098]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 20.0% to about 100%.

  • [0099]

    In some embodiments, the average active enzyme content per primary particle of the particulate material is about 30.0% to about 100%.

  • [0100]

    In some embodiments, the coating is about 5 um to about 5000 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0101]

    In some embodiments, the coating is about 15 um to about 500 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0102]

    In some embodiments, the coating is about 15 um to about 150 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0103]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a paint.

  • [0104]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a clear coating.

  • [0105]

    In some embodiments, the clear coating comprises a lacquer, a varnish, a shellac, a stain, a water repellent coating, or a combination thereof.

  • [0106]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a multicoat system.

  • [0107]

    In some embodiments, the multicoat system comprises 2 to 10 layers.

  • [0108]

    In some embodiments, one layer of the multicoat system comprises the active enzyme.

  • [0109]

    In some embodiments, a plurality of layers of the multicoat system comprise the active enzyme.

  • [0110]

    In some embodiments, at least one layer of said plurality of layers comprises a different preparation of the active enzyme than at least a second layer of said plurality of layers that comprises the active enzyme.

  • [0111]

    In some embodiments, each layer of the multicoat system is coating is about 5 um to about 5000 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0112]

    In some embodiments, each layer of the multicoat system is coating is about 15 um to about 500 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0113]

    In some embodiments, each layer of the multicoat system is coating is about 15 um to about 150 um thick upon a surface.

  • [0114]

    In some embodiments, the multicoat system comprises a sealer, a water repellent, a primer, an undercoat, a topcoat, or a combination thereof.

  • [0115]

    In some embodiments, the multicoat system comprises a topcoat.

  • [0116]

    In some embodiments, the topcoat comprises the active enzyme.

  • [0117]

    In some embodiments, the coating is a coating that is capable of film formation.

  • [0118]

    In some embodiments, film formation occurs between about −10° C. to about 40° C.

  • [0119]

    In some embodiments, film formation occurs at baking conditions.

  • [0120]

    In some embodiments, baking conditions is between about 40° C. and about 50° C.

  • [0121]

    In some embodiments, baking conditions is between about 40° C. and about 65° C.

  • [0122]

    In some embodiments, baking conditions is between about 40° C. and about 110° C.

  • [0123]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a volatile component and a non-volatile component.

  • [0124]

    In some embodiments, the coating undergoes film formation by loss of part of the volatile component.

  • [0125]

    In some embodiments, the volatile component comprises a volatile liquid component.

  • [0126]

    In some embodiments, the volatile liquid component comprises a solvent, a thinner, a diluent, or a combination thereof.

  • [0127]

    In some embodiments, the non-volatile component comprises a binder, a colorant, a plasticizer, a coating additive, or a combination thereof.

  • [0128]

    In some embodiments, film formation occurs by crosslinking of a binder.

  • [0129]

    In some embodiments, film formation occurs by crosslinking of a plurality of binders.

  • [0130]

    In some embodiments, film formation occurs by irradiating the coating.

  • [0131]

    In some embodiments, the coating produces a self-cleaning film.

  • [0132]

    In some embodiments, the coating produces a temporary film.

  • [0133]

    In some embodiments, the temporary film has a poor resistance to a coating remover.

  • [0134]

    In some embodiments, the temporary film has a poor abrasion resistance, a poor solvent resistance, a poor water resistance, a poor weathering property, a poor adhesion property, a poor microorganism/biological resistance property, or a combination thereof.

  • [0135]

    In some embodiments, the coating is a non-film forming coating.

  • [0136]

    In some embodiments, the non-film forming coating comprises a non-film formation binder.

  • [0137]

    In some embodiments, the non-film forming coating comprises a coating component in a concentration that is insufficient to produce a solid film.

  • [0138]

    In some embodiments, the coating component comprises a binder that contributes to thermoplastic film formation.

  • [0139]

    In some embodiments, the coating component contributes to thermosetting film formation.

  • [0140]

    In some embodiments, the coating component comprises a binder, catalyst, initiator, or combination thereof.

  • [0141]

    In some embodiments, the coating component has a concentration of about 0%.

  • [0142]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises architectural coating.

  • [0143]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an architectural wood coating, an architectural masonry coating, an architectural artist's coating, an architectural plastic coating, an architectural metal coating, or a combination thereof.

  • [0144]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a pot life of at least 12 months at about −10° C. to about 40° C.

  • [0145]

    In some embodiments, the coating undergoes film formation between about −10° C. to about 40° C.

  • [0146]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an automotive coating, a can coating, a sealant coating, or a combination thereof.

  • [0147]

    In some embodiments, the coating undergoes film formation at baking conditions.

  • [0148]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a chemical agent resistant coating, a camouflage coating, a pipeline coating, a traffic marker coating, an aircraft coating, a nuclear power plant coating, or a combination thereof.

  • [0149]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a plastic coating.

  • [0150]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a water-borne coating.

  • [0151]

    In some embodiments, the water-borne coating is a latex coating.

  • [0152]

    In some embodiments, the water-borne coating has a density of about 1.20 kg/L to about 1.50 kg/L.

  • [0153]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a solvent-borne coating.

  • [0154]

    In some embodiments, the solvent-borne coating has a density of about 0.90 kg/L to about 1.2 kg/L.

  • [0155]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a low-shear viscosity of about 100 P to about 3000 P.

  • [0156]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a low-shear viscosity of about 100 P to about 1000 P.

  • [0157]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a medium-shear viscosity of about 60 Ku and about 140 Ku.

  • [0158]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a medium-shear viscosity of about 72 Ku to about 95 Ku.

  • [0159]

    In some embodiments, the coating has a high-shear viscosity of about 0.5 P to about 2.5 P.

  • [0160]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a binder, a liquid component, a colorant, an additive, or a combination thereof.

  • [0161]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a binder.

  • [0162]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a thermoplastic binder, a thermosetting binder, or a combination thereof.

  • [0163]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a thermoplastic binder.

  • [0164]

    In some embodiments, the coating is a coating capable of producing a film by thermoplastic film formation.

  • [0165]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a thermosetting binder.

  • [0166]

    In some embodiments, the coating is a coating capable of producing a film by thermosetting film formation.

  • [0167]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises an oil-based binder.

  • [0168]

    In some embodiments, the oil-based binder comprises an oil, an alkyd, an oleoresinous binder, a fatty acid epoxide ester, or a combination thereof.

  • [0169]

    In some embodiments, the coating produces a layer about 15 um to about 25 μm thick upon the vertical surface or about 15 um to about 40 μm thick upon the horizontal surface.

  • [0170]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a polyester resin.

  • [0171]

    In some embodiments, the polyester resin comprises a hydroxy-terminated polyester or a carboxylic acid-terminated polyester.

  • [0172]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a urethane, an amino resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0173]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a modified cellulose.

  • [0174]

    In some embodiments, the modified cellulose comprises a cellulose ester or a nitrocellulose.

  • [0175]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an amino binder, an acrylic binder, a urethane binder, or a combination thereof.

  • [0176]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a polyamide.

  • [0177]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an epoxide.

  • [0178]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises an amino resin.

  • [0179]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an acrylic binder, an alkyd resin, a polyester binder, or a combination thereof.

  • [0180]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a urethane binder.

  • [0181]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a polyol, an amine, an epoxide, a silicone, a vinyl, a phenolic, a triacrylate, or a combination thereof.

  • [0182]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a phenolic resin.

  • [0183]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an alkyd resin, an amino resin, a blown oil, an epoxy resin, a polyamide, a polyvinyl resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0184]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises an epoxy resin.

  • [0185]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an amino resin, a phenolic resin, a polyamide, a ketimine, an aliphatic amine, or a combination thereof.

  • [0186]

    In some embodiments, the epoxy resin comprises a cycloaliphatic epoxy binder.

  • [0187]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a polyol.

  • [0188]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a polyhydroxyether binder.

  • [0189]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an epoxide, a polyurethane comprising an isocyanate moiety, an amino resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0190]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises an acrylic resin.

  • [0191]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an epoxide, a polyurethane comprising an isocyanate moiety, an amino resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0192]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a polyvinyl binder

  • [0193]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an alkyd, a urethane, an amino-resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0194]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a rubber resin.

  • [0195]

    In some embodiments, the rubber resin comprises a chlorinated rubber resin, a synthetic rubber resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0196]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an acrylic resin, an alkyd resin, a bituminous resin, or a combination thereof.

  • [0197]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a bituminous binder.

  • [0198]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an epoxy resin.

  • [0199]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a polysulfide binder.

  • [0200]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a peroxide, a binder comprising an isocyanate moiety, or a combination thereof.

  • [0201]

    In some embodiments, the binder comprises a silicone binder.

  • [0202]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an organic binder.

  • [0203]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a liquid component.

  • [0204]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component comprises a solvent, a thinner, a diluent, a plasticizer, or a combination thereof.

  • [0205]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component comprises a liquid organic compound, an inorganic compound, water, or a combination thereof.

  • [0206]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component comprises a liquid organic compound.

  • [0207]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a hydrocarbon, an oxygenated compound, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, a nitrated hydrocarbon, a miscellaneous organic liquid, a plasticizer, or a combination thereof.

  • [0208]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a hydrocarbon.

  • [0209]

    In some embodiments, the hydrocarbon comprises an aliphatic hydrocarbon, a cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon, a terpene, an aromatic hydrocarbon, or a combination thereof.

  • [0210]

    In some embodiments, the hydrocarbon comprises a petroleum ether, pentane, hexane, heptane, isododecane, a kerosene, a mineral spirit, a VMP naphtha, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, ethylcyclohexane, tetrahydronaphthalene, decahydronaphthalene, wood terpentine oil, pine oil, α-pinene, β-pinene, dipentene, D-limonene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, cumene, a type I high flash aromatic naphtha, a type II high flash aromatic naphtha, mesitylene, pseudocumene, cymol, styrene, or a combination thereof.

  • [0211]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises an oxygenated compound.

  • [0212]

    In some embodiments, the oxygenated compound comprises an alcohol, an ester, a glycol ether, a ketone, an ether, or a combination thereof.

  • [0213]

    In some embodiments, the oxygenated compound comprises methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanol, methylisobutylcarbinol, 2-ethylbutanol, isooctyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol, isodecanol, cylcohexanol, methylcyclohexanol, trimethylcyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol, methylbenzyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, diacetone alcohol, trimethylcyclohexanol, methyl formate, ethyl formate, butyl formate, isobutyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, amyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cyclohexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, methyl glycol acetate, ethyl glycol acetate, butyl glycol acetate, ethyl diglycol acetate, butyl diglycol acetate, 1-methoxypropyl acetate, ethoxypropyl acetate, 3-methoxybutyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate, isobutyl isobutyrate, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl glycolate, dimethyl adipate, glutarate, succinate, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, butyrolactone, methyl glycol, ethyl glycol, propyl glycol, isopropyl glycol, butyl glycol, methyl diglycol, ethyl diglycol, butyl diglycol, ethyl triglycol, butyl triglycol, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, methoxypropanol, isobutoxypropanol, isobutyl glycol, propylene glycol monoethyl ether, 1-isopropoxy-2-propanol, propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether, propylene glycol n-butyl ether, methyl dipropylene glycol, methoxybutanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl propyl ketone, methyl isopropyl ketone, methyl butyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, methyl isoamyl ketone, diethyl ketone, ethyl amyl ketone, dipropyl ketone, diisopropyl ketone, cyclohexanone, methylcylcohexanone, trimethylcyclohexanone, mesityl oxide, diisobutyl ketone, isophorone, diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, dibutyl ether, di-sec-butyl ether, methyl tert-butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, metadioxane, or a combination thereof.

  • [0214]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a chlorinated hydrocarbon.

  • [0215]

    In some embodiments, the chlorinated hydrocarbon comprises methylene chloride, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, ethyl chloride, isopropyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachlorethane, 1,2-dichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, chlorobenzene, or a combination thereof.

  • [0216]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a nitrated hydrocarbon.

  • [0217]

    In some embodiments, the nitrated hydrocarbon comprises a nitroparaffin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, or a combination thereof.

  • [0218]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a miscellaneous organic liquid.

  • [0219]

    In some embodiments, the miscellaneous organic liquid comprises carbon dioxide; acetic acid, methylal, dimethylacetal, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, tetramethylene sulfone, carbon disulfide, 2-nitropropane, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, or a combination thereof.

  • [0220]

    In some embodiments, the liquid organic compound comprises a plasticizer.

  • [0221]

    In some embodiments, the plasticizer comprises di(2-ethylhexyl) azelate; di(butyl) sebacate; di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di(isononyl) phthalate; dibutyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; di(isooctyl) phthalate; di(idodecyl) phthalate; tris(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate; tris(isononyl)trimellitate; di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate; di(isononyl) adipate; acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate; an epoxy modified soybean oil; 2-ethylhexyl epoxytallate; isodecyl diphenyl phosphate; tricresyl phosphate; isodecyl diphenyl phosphate; tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate; an adipic acid polyester; an azelaic acid polyester; a bisphenoxyethylformal, or a combination thereof.

  • [0222]

    In some embodiments, the plasticizer comprises an adipate, an azelate, a citrate, a chlorinated plasticizer, an epoxide, a phosphate, a sebacate, a phthalate, a polyester, a trimellitate, or a combination thereof.

  • [0223]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component comprises an inorganic compound.

  • [0224]

    In some embodiments, the inorganic compound comprises ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen cyanide, sulfur dioxide, or a combination thereof.

  • [0225]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component comprises water.

  • [0226]

    In some embodiments, the liquid component further comprises methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butanol, ethylene glycol, methyl glycol, ethyl glycol, propyl glycol, butyl glycol, ethyl diglycol, methoxypropanol, methyldipropylene glycol, dioxane, tetrahydorfuran, acetone, diacetone alcohol, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, p-xylene, toluene, diisobutyl ketone, tricholorethylene, trimethylcyclohexanol, cyclohexyl acetate, dibutyl ether, trimethylcyclohexanone, 1,1,1-tricholoroethane, hexane, hexanol, isobutyl acetate, butyl acetate, isophorone, nitropropane, butyl glycol acetate, 2-nitropropane, methylene chloride, methyl isobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone, isopropyl acetate, methylbenzyl alcohol, cyclohexanol, nitroethane, methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, butanol, butyl glycolate, isobutanol, 2-butanol, propylene carbonate, ethyl glycol acetate, methyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, or a combination thereof.

  • [0227]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a colorant.

  • [0228]

    In some embodiments, the colorant comprises a pigment, a dye, or a combination thereof.

  • [0229]

    In some embodiments, the colorant comprises a pigment.

  • [0230]

    In some embodiments, the active enzyme comprises a particulate material that comprises about 0.000001% to about 100% of the pigment.

  • [0231]

    In some embodiments, the pigment volume concentration of the coating is about 20% to about 70%.

  • [0232]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises a corrosion resistance pigment, a camouflage pigment, a color property pigment, an extender pigment, or a combination thereof.

  • [0233]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises a corrosion resistance pigment.

  • [0234]

    In some embodiments, the corrosion resistance pigment comprises aluminum flake, aluminum triphosphate, aluminum zinc phosphate, ammonium chromate, barium borosilicate, barium chromate, barium metaborate, basic calcium zinc molybdate, basic carbonate white lead, basic lead silicate, basic lead silicochromate, basic lead silicosulfate, basic zinc molybdate, basic zinc molybdate-phosphate, basic zinc molybdenum phosphate, basic zinc phosphate hydrate, bronze flake, calcium barium phosphosilicate, calcium borosilicate, calcium chromate, calcium plumbate, calcium strontium phosphosilicate, calcium strontium zinc phosphosilicate, dibasic lead phosphite, lead chromosilicate, lead cyanamide, lead suboxide, lead sulfate, mica, micaceous iron oxide, red lead, steel flake, strontium borosilicate, strontium chromate, tribasic lead phophosilicate, zinc borate, zinc borosilicate, zinc chromate, zinc dust, zinc hydroxy phosphite, zinc molybdate, zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, zinc potassium chromate, zinc silicophosphate hydrate, zinc tetraoxylchromate, or a combination thereof.

  • [0235]

    In some embodiments, the coating is a metal surface coating.

  • [0236]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises a primer.

  • [0237]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises a camouflage pigment.

  • [0238]

    In some embodiments, the camouflage pigment comprises an anthraquinone black, a chromium oxide green, the active enzyme that comprises a particulate material, or a combination thereof.

  • [0239]

    In some embodiments, the camouflage pigment reduces the ability of the coating to be detected by a devise that measures infrared radiation.

  • [0240]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises a color property pigment.

  • [0241]

    In some embodiments, the color property pigment comprises a black pigment, a brown pigment, a white pigment, a pearlescent pigment, a violet pigment, a blue pigment, a green pigment, a yellow pigment, an orange pigment, a red pigment, a metallic pigment, the active enzyme that comprises a particulate material, or a combination thereof.

  • [0242]

    In some embodiments, the color property pigment comprises aniline black; anthraquinone black; carbon black; copper carbonate; graphite; iron oxide; micaceous iron oxide; manganese dioxide, azo condensation, metal complex brown; antimony oxide; basic lead carbonate; lithopone; titanium dioxide; white lead; zinc oxide; zinc sulphide; titanium dioxide and ferric oxide covered mica, bismuth oxychloride crystal, dioxazine violet, carbazole Blue; cobalt blue; indanthrone; phthalocyanine blue; Prussian blue; ultramarine; chrome green; hydrated chromium oxide; phthalocyanine green; anthrapyrimidine; arylamide yellow; barium chromate; benzimidazolone yellow; bismuth vanadate; cadmium sulfide yellow; complex inorganic color; diarylide yellow; disazo condensation; flavanthrone; isoindoline; isoindolinone; lead chromate; nickel azo yellow; organic metal complex; yellow iron oxide; zinc chromate; perinone orange; pyrazolone orange; anthraquinone; benzimidazolone; BON arylamide; cadmium red; cadmium selenide; chrome red; dibromanthrone; diketopyrrolo-pyrrole; lead molybdate; perylene; pyranthrone; quinacridone; quinophthalone; red iron oxide; red lead; toluidine red; tonor; β-naphthol red; aluminum flake; aluminum non-leafing, gold bronze flake, zinc dust, stainless steel flake, nickel flake, nickel powder, or a combination thereof.

  • [0243]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises an extender pigment.

  • [0244]

    In some embodiments, the extender pigment comprises a barium sulphate, a calcium carbonate, a kaolin, a calcium sulphate, a silicate, a silica, an alumina trihydrate, the active enzyme that comprises a particulate material, or a combination thereof.

  • [0245]

    In some embodiments, the pigment comprises barium ferrite; borosilicate; burnt sienna; burnt umber; calcium ferrite; cerium; chrome orange; chrome yellow; chromium phosphate; cobalt-containing iron oxide; fast chrome green; gold bronze powder; luminescent; magnetic; molybdate orange; molybdate red; oxazine; oxysulfide; polycyclic; raw sienna; surface modified pigment; thiazine; thioindigo; transparent cobalt blue; transparent cobalt green; transparent iron blue; transparent zinc oxide; triarylcarbonium; zinc cyanamide; zinc ferrite; or a combination thereof.

  • [0246]

    In some embodiments, the coating comprises an additive.

  • [0247]

    In some embodiments, the additive comprises 0.000001% to 20.0% by weight, of the coating.

  • [0248]

  • Ну… - задумалась Сьюзан.  - Это зависит от оперативности, с которой ARA пересылает почту. Если адресат находится в Штатах и пользуется такими провайдерами, как «Америка онлайн» или «Компьюсерв», я отслежу его кредитную карточку и получу его учетную запись в течение часа. Если он использует адрес университета или корпорации, времени уйдет немного.  - Она через силу улыбнулась.

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